What is an Histopathology?

Histopathology involves examining tissue samples under a microscope to diagnose diseases. It analyzes structural and functional changes in tissues caused by diseases or injuries. This field is used in cancer, infectious disease, autoimmune disease, and tissue transplantation diagnoses. Tissue samples are collected, processed, stained, and examined under a microscope to identify abnormal cellular changes. The histopathology report provides detailed findings that guide disease diagnosis, treatment, and management.

"histopathology is a critical tool for diagnosing and treating a wide range of diseases."

Histopathology Techniques:

  • Fixation: This is the first step in preparing a tissue sample for histopathology. It involves immersing the tissue in a fixative solution to preserve its structure and prevent degradation. Common fixatives include formalin, alcohol, and Bouin's solution.
  • Embedding: Once the tissue is fixed, it is dehydrated, cleared, and embedded in a solid block of paraffin or resin to make it easier to cut into thin sections for microscopic examination.
  • Sectioning: The embedded tissue is sliced into thin sections using a microtome, and the sections are mounted on glass slides.
  • Staining: To enhance the visibility of the tissue structures under the microscope, the tissue sections are stained with various dyes. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining is the most common technique, which stains the nuclei blue-purple and the cytoplasm and extracellular matrix pink.
  • Microscopy: The stained tissue sections are examined under a microscope, and the structures are identified and analyzed by a pathologist or histotechnologist.
  • Special techniques: In addition to routine histopathology, various special techniques may be used to identify specific tissue components or pathologic conditions, such as immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy.


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